In June of 2003, former National Security Agency (NSA) contractor Edward Snowden disclosed classified information about the United States government’s surveillance programs to several media outlets. Since then the issue has come to light internationally through newspapers and media outlets. Not only do the programs have unconditional authority over constitutional systems but they also violate domestic and foreign civilians’ right to privacy.
On April 8th, 2013, Snowden further dismissed the government officials’ claims that these surveillance programs are only geared towards national security threats, and argued that they are widely abused to control civil society by targeting members of human rights groups. What this story reveals is that the program has been denaturalized from protecting public security to protecting the regime’s political and economical advantage. This issue is not only limited in the US, but has international repurcussions since; 1) global civilians are systematically targeted by this program that violates foreign states’ sovereignty; and 2) the NSA’s programs exacerbate the international surveillance arms race as it encourages other allies and nations to construct similar or contending programs.
While there are a number of studies and news reports on government surveillance today, ordinary citizens, particularly everyday Internet users, have a limited understanding of how the NSA programs operate and why they should care. This project was designed to form a public consensus and to encourage people to join the current petitioning communities in support of reforming the NSA’s program. In light of this, the project employed more accessible communication mechanisms through means of visual and interactive campaigns to aid in informing a wider audience.
* ( Note for mobile: Infographic highlighting this research project is placed after bibliography. )
Consumer’s Data Privacy Transparency
Hofman, M. (Apr. 30, 2013). Who Has Your Back? 2013. San Francisco: Electronic Frontier Foundation. Retrieved from https://www.eff.org/wp/who-has-your-back-2013
Boomerang (See also D.2)
Obar, J. and Clement, A. (2013). Internet Surveillance and Boomerang Routing : A Call for Canadian Network Sovereignty. In P. Ross & J. Shtern (Eds.), TEM 2013: Proceedings of the Technology & Emerging Media Track - Annual Conference of the Canadian Communication Association (Victoria, June 5-7, 2012).
Bamford, J. (Aug. 15, 2013). They Know Much More Than You Think. The New York Review of Books. Retrieved from http://www.nybooks.com/articles/archives/2013/aug/15/nsa-they-know-much-more-you-think/?page=2
The Five Eyes
Open Access Canada. (Nov. 13, 2013) Keeping Watch: The Five Eyes. Canadian International Council. Retrieved from http://opencanada.org/features/the-think-tank/graphic/keeping-watch/
The New Utah Data Centre
Bamford, J. (Mar. 15, 2012). The NSA Is Building the Country’s Biggest Spy Center (Watch What You Say). Wired. Retrieved from http://www.wired.com/2012/03/ff_nsadatacenter/all/
Opsahl, K. (Feb. 6, 2014) Everything We Know About NSA Spying: "Through a PRISM, Darkly". Electronic Frontier Foundation at Chaos Communication Congress. Retrieved from https://www.eff.org/nsa-spying/how-it-works
RT. (Oct. 8, 2013) NSA’s vast new Utah data hub suffering from ‘meltdowns’ - report. RT. Retrieved from http://rt.com/usa/nsa-utah-data-hub-meltdowns-871/
NSA Word Games & Metadata
Opsahl, K. (Jul 11, 2013) The NSA’s Word Games Explained: How the Government Deceived Congress in the Debate over Surveillance Powers. Electronic Frontier Foundation. Retrieved from https://www.eff.org/deeplinks/2013/06/director-national-intelligences-word-games-explained-how-government-deceived
Goodman, A. and González, J. (Jun. 12, 2013) More Intrusive Than Eavesdropping? NSA Collection of Metadata Hands Gov’t Sweeping Personal Info. Democracy Now. Retrieved from http://www.democracynow.org/2013/6/12/more_intrusive_than_eavesdropping_nsa_collection
Greenberg, A. (September 3, 2013). How A 'Deviant' Philosopher Built Palantir, A CIA-Funded Data-Mining Juggernaut. Forbes. Retrieved from http://www.forbes.com/sites/andygreenberg/2013/08/14/agent-of-intelligence-how-a-deviant-philosopher-built-palantir-a-cia-funded-data-mining-juggernaut/
Mansnick, M. (Jan. 13, 2014) NSA Goes From Saying Bulk Metadata Collection 'Saves Lives' To 'Prevented 54 Attacks' To 'Well, It's A Nice Insurance Policy'. Tech Dirt. Retrieved from http://www.techdirt.com/articles/20140111/22360125843/nsa-goes-saying-bulk-metadata-collection-saves-lives-to-prevented-54-attacks-to-well-its-nice-insurance-policy.shtml
Gardener, F. (Nov. 2, 2013) How do terrorists communicate?. BBC. Retrieved from http://www.bbc.com/news/world-24784756
Abuse of Power
Barr, B. (Mar. 19, 2014) Senators Forced to Play “Frankenstein” with Privacy Monster They Created. Townhall. Retrieved from http://townhall.com/columnists/bobbarr/2014/03/19/senators-forced-to-play-frankenstein-with-privacy-monster-they-created-n1811028/page/full
Timm, T. (Dec. 31, 2013) President Obama claims the NSA has never abused its authority. That's false. The Guardian. Retrieved from http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2013/dec/31/nsa-powers-have-been-abused
· G.3 (also see D.2)
Lewis, P. (Sep. 27, 2013) NSA employee spied on nine women without detection, internal file shows. The Guardian. Retrieved from http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/sep/27/nsa-employee-spied-detection-internal-memo
Radicalizer and Social Control
Greenwald, G., Gallangher, R., and Grim, R. (Nov. 26, 2013) Top-Secret Document Reveals NSA Spied On Porn Habits As Part Of Plan To Discredit 'Radicalizers'. Huffington Post. Retrieved from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/11/26/nsa-porn-muslims_n_4346128.html?1385526024#slide=more322552
Harding, L. (Apr. 8, 2014) Edward Snowden: US government spied on human rights workers. The Guardian. Retrieved from http://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/apr/08/edwards-snowden-us-government-spied-human-rights-workers
Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court
EPIC. (May 4, 2012) FISA annual reports: Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act Court Orders 1979-2012. Electronic Privacy Information Center. Retrieved from http://epic.org/privacy/wiretap/stats/fisa_stats.html
National Security Agency. (Sep. 19, 2007) President Bush Discusses the Protect America Act of 2007. The United States Department of Justice. Retrieved from http://www.justice.gov/archive/ll/docs/bush-disc-paa07.pdf
Canada & Communications Security Establishment Canada (CSEC)
Brean, J. (Jan. 27, 2014) FISA annual reports: Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act Court Orders 1979-201 Canada needs independent watchdog to prevent NSA-type breaches: Ontario privacy commissioner. National Post. Retrieved from http://news.nationalpost.com/2014/01/27/canada-needs-independent-watchdog-to-prevent-nsa-type-breaches-ontario-privacy-commissioner/
(See B.1 and .2)
Cavoukian, A. (2013, July). A Primer on Metadata: Separating Fact From Fiction. Toronto: Information and Privacy Commissioner Ontario.
Weston, G. (Oct. 8, 2013) New intelligence headquarters has soaring atriums, grand staircases and filtered drinking fountains. CBC. Retrieved from http://www.cbc.ca/news/politics/inside-canada-s-top-secret-billion-dollar-spy-palace-1.1930322